msdeploy.exe is looking for Microsoft.SqlServer.Dac.dll library in a number of "well-known" directories (most probably it takes them from the Registry) - see screenshot attached.
None of those directories exists on Visual Studio 2019 image. And it's understandable as starting from late VS 2017 versions DacFx is a part of Visual Studio SSDT package and on VS 2019 image DacFx is located in C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2019\Community\Common7\IDE\Extensions\Microsoft\SQLDB\DAC\150 directory.
I've tried playing with copying that directory to some of those locations, but then msdeploy gives a different more cryptic errors, most probably because that 15.x DacFx version is far beyond of what's supported in msdeploy. Indeed, WebDeploy stopped evolving a long time ago.