I forked your repro to look at it. I connected to build worker with RDP and was also able to reproduce this issue manually in RDP as well. Trying to run build from all kinds of developer command prompts did not help ether. However when I agreed to upgrade Windows SDK version and Platform toolset (see attached pic) it started building OK.
Is your local VS2017 computer where it builds OK is the same computer where VS2015 installed?
Also please note that xppq-node does not actually being build, it has build: off setting and I am pretty sure that it will fail the same way, if msbuild is called against it.
Thank you very much for your answer ; it helped me to solve the issue.
The problem was that the Platform toolset in the Visual Sudio project file was hardcoded ; by setting it to $(DefaultPlatformToolset), all the builds are now successful, yet without the need to have a Visual Studio project file per version.
As you guessed, I have indeed, in addition to the 2017 version, another Visual Studio installation on my computer, although it is the 2013 version, not the 2015, and that's probably why the builds succeed on my computer.
Regarding the xppq-node project, the build is made by the install script (node-pre-gyp /m build), and that's because it has build: off. And before this command, there is a node-pre-gyp configure, which generates the Visual Studio project file. As it uses the MS tools from the proper Visual Studio version, each generated project file probably contains a suitable Platform Toolset, and that's why all the build were successful, as the test proves it.